His work is modelled after that of earlier Sanskrit grammarians, Panini , Pujyapada and others, and is considered an exhaustive work. The author's emphasis on the importance of Kannada language and its rich literary and poetic history is evident and was meant to be a rebuttal to the attitude shown by contemporary Sanskrit scholars towards Kannada language. Shadaksharadeva, who attempted to revive the classical Sanskritised champu metre, belonged to the Pampa tradition. A bilingual writer in Sanskrit and Kannada, his writings propagate his faith in the god Shiva.
He wrote three well-known works in Kannada:  Rakashekara Vilasa , his best-known poetic work, written during his early days, has love as the main theme and rivals the poems in Lakshmisa 's Jaimini Bharata 17th century. Upon hearing the news of her son's death by trampling under the hooves of Prince Rajashekara's horse, the mother rushes to the scene, and mourns, holding the body of her son in her lap. Sabarasankara Vilasa is a poem in five cantos narrating a popular tale of the battle between the god Shiva and the Pandava prince Arjuna.
To test Arjuna's devotion to him, Shiva disguises himself as a hunter and fights a fierce battle with Arjuna. Toward the end, impressed with Arjuna's devotion, Shiva bestows on him a weapon called Pashuptastra. Other notable Kannada writers in the court of Kanthirava Narasaraja I r. The reign of King Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar r. The king, an able warrior known to have defeated even the Marathas on occasion, held the upper hand against the Nizam of Golconda and brought the Keladi territories under his domain by An able administrator, the king was inclined towards the Srivaishnava faith.
Though inspired by Jayadeva 's Geeta Govinda c.
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The work differs from the original in that the god Krishna and his Gopikas are the protagonists of the play instead of Krishna and his consort Radha. It is considered an asset to students of music and literature. The king's other works are commentaries on the Bhagavata and the later chapters of the epic Mahabharata , a collection of devotional poems written in thirty verses Chikkadevaraya binappa , "Kings Petition" and composed in praise of the god Cheluva Narayanaswamy of Melkote.
Tirumalarya II, a native of Srirangapatna and a descendent of Tirumalarya I, was held in high esteem in the Mysore court. A childhood friend of the King Chikka Devaraja, he served as his minister.
Minister Chikkupadhyaya or Lakshmipathi , a native of Terakanambi town in Mysore district was a zealous Srivaishnava and one of the most prolific Kannada writers of his time. To his credit are over thirty works, mostly in the sangatya and champu metres, and gadya prose.
Lakshmisa , a superb story-teller, a dramatist and a Vaishnava by faith, is one of the most well-known writers of kavyas narrative poems. Kannada scholar H. Shiva Prakash opines he lived in the midth century, but R.
KarnatakaHistory: The Mysore Khedda
Narasimhacharya and historian Nilakanta Sastri claim he was active in the late 17th century, probably during the rule of King Chikka Devaraja. The author has succeeded in converting a religious story into a very human tale, making it popular even in modern times.
For his deft usage of the language, the poet earned the honorific Upamalola lit. Singaraya, a brother of Tirumalarya II, wrote Mitravinda Govinda , the earliest available classical drama in Kannada.
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This work, which won her many accolades, is in nine sections, containing stanzas, and is written in sangatya metre. Despite being employed as a betel bag bearer and as a maid to Queen Devajammani, she claimed Alasingaraya, a court poet, her Guru. Her work narrates the struggles of women in society, and stresses their need to fulfill their daily roles in family life. Other writers under the patronage of King Chikka Devaraja were: Chidananda, a Jain poet wrote philosophical compositions called Tatwada Kirtanegalu , Neeti Nrimaya and Munivamsha Bhyudaya in sangatya metre; Vaikunta Dasa , a native of Belur composed kirtanes on the god Vishnu pen-name "Vaikunta" and songs such as Kapatamata ;  Timmakavi Hari Vilasa in sangatya metre and Yadavagiri Mahatmya , ; Mallikarjuna Sriranga Mahatmya , and Mallarasa Dasavatara Charite .
Some Brahmin writers worthy of mention from the 17th century are Ramachandra Asrasastra , Tirumalevaidya Uttara Ramayana , , Nagarasa of Pandharpur Bhagavadgite , Timmarasa Kshetraganita on geometry ,  and Venkayarya, a Haridasa of Penukonda Krishnalilabhyudaya. A mendicant Veerashaiva poet, a moralist and a drifter whose early days are unclear, Sarvajna lit.
He is known to have been a native of either Abbalur or Madagamasuru in the Dharwad district. Based on literary evidence scholars place him variously between the 16th and 18th centuries. Narasimhacharya and H. Shiva Prakash claim he lived in the 17th century. His witty and didactic poems, numbering over 2,, were written using the simple tripadi metre. Sarvajna, who is not known to have acquired a formal education, gained knowledge from the world, writing poems impromptu about the nature of people and places. According to the scholar Naikar, Sarvajna was born to "sing the truth and truth alone".
People from a broad spectrum of life were commented upon: "Professionals such as priests, astrologers, sorcerers, tax collectors and accountants; artisans such as smiths, carpenters, tailors and potters; and businessmen such as oil men, money-lenders, fishermen and farmers", all have caught the poet's discerning eye.
Sarvajna reserved his compliments only for the farmers, weavers, real spiritual seekers and chaste housewives. Neither was he patronized by royalty nor did he write for fame or money. During the first half of the 18th century Mysore's independence was delicately balanced, with the incumbent kings accepting either a nominal subordination or a strategic alliance with the larger power, the Mughals of northern India , by paying tribute while keeping the Marathas Baji Rao I of the Deccan plateau at bay.
From the s, the kings also came under the sway of the powerful Dalavoy or Dalwai , Prime minister Nanjaraja or Nanjarajaiah and Sarvadhikari Chief minister Devaraja or Devarajaiah , the influential Kalale brothers of Nanjangud. Yakshagana, a rustic form of theatre which draws upon themes from the Hindu epics, the Ramayana , the Mahabharata and the Bhagavata , has an established history in the Kannada speaking region of over years.
Witty comments are interjected by hasyagaras clowns. Musical instruments include maddale and chende types of drums , and a sruti harmonium -like instrument. The rangasthala acting arena could be a temple compound, an open space near the patron's house or a clearing in a paddy field. It is based on the story of the ape-like humanoid king Sugriva who overthrew his powerful brother Vali to regain his kingdom in the Hindu epic Ramayana.
M Bhat, Shivarama Karanth and R. Diwakar have proposed various theories about the origin and forerunners of the Yakshagana art,  N. Venkata Rao, editor of The Southern school in Telugu literature , gives the credit of writing the earliest available Yakshagana plays that include sangita music , nataka drama and natya dance to the polyglot king of Mysore, Narasaraja II r.
His fourteen Yakshagana compositions, written in various languages but in the Kannada script, were discovered at the government manuscripts library in Chennai. The Haridasa literature propagates the dvaita dualistic philosophy of Madhvacharya.
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Their compositions have also been of immense value to the development of music and literature in general. While Hari a form of god Vishnu is central to their beliefs, their compositions show tolerance to other Vaishnava deities as well. By bringing the values cherished in the Upanishads scripture and Vedas Hindu sacred texts to the commoner in simple Kannada, these itinerant Haridasas made valuable contributions as "minstrels of God". Vijaya Dasa was inspired by the establishment of the monastery of saint Raghavendra Swami of the Madhvacharya order at Mantralayam town.
His lyrical compositions, said to be 25, in all, are written in the Purandara Dasa tradition with the pen-name ankita "Vijaya Vittala". Jagannatha Dasa — is considered the most notable of the lateth century Haridasas. Apart from a number of devotional songs, he is credited with two important writings. The Harikathamritasara treats on the philosophy of Madhvacharya. Written in the shatpadi metre with a poetic touch, it contains 32 chapters of stanzas. Senior officials have camped there, and stationed policemen armed with guns and lathis.
Prohibitory orders are in place for three days. A fight over a trivial issue between two persons belonging to different communities sparked the clash. The trouble comes ahead of elections in minority-dominated Narasimharaja constituency. Haridasa Sahitya , the devotional literature of the Vaishnava saints of Karnataka, flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries under the guidance of such saint-poets as Vyasatirtha , Purandara Dasa "father of carnatic music" [ 45 ] and Kanaka Dasa. This period, according to the scholars M. Kamath and V. Kher, may be called its "classical period".
This literature was revived in the 18th and 19th centuries. These songs have remained popular with the members of the Madhva religious order even in the modern age. Shiva Prakash, about saint-poets from this cadre enriched Kannada literature during the 18th—19th century [ 48 ].
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After a break of more than three centuries, writing of vachana poems was revived. Though some poets such as Tontada Siddhalingayati , Swatantra Siddhalingeswara , Ganalingideva , Shanmukha Swamy , Kadasiddheswara and Kadakolu Madivallappa attempted to re-popularise the tradition with noteworthy pieces, they lacked the mastery of the 12th century social reformers.
Among well-known 16th century anthologists were Channaveeracharya 16th century and Singalada Siddhabasava c. While the most famous writings are ascribed to Nijaguna Shivayogi c. The birth of modern expression in the Kannada language can be traced to the early 19th century, a transition that in later decades included the influence of English literature on local traditions. The king himself was an accomplished Kannada writer to whom is ascribed the prose romance Saugandhika Parinaya.
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